Humans and animals have lived side by side for many years. Animals enrich our lives and help us understand the natural world around us. But humans have the power and intelligence to make influential decisions... does this make them more important? Hmmm…
Are humans more important than other animals?
Just how different are we to our four-legged friends?
What’s so special about humans anyway? Is there anything that other animals are aware of that we’re not? Zoologist, Professor Alex Kacelnik (University of Oxford) talks about the ways in which other animals are more similar to humans than perhaps we might like to admit…
Everyone has read stories about animals performing amazing acts of intelligence, bravery and loyalty - the kind of qualities you might only usually associate with humans.
And we’re not just talking about our close relations, the upper primates, either. Even crows are capable of using multiple tools in complex sequences. Actually, these birds are capable of logical thinking, planning and creativity – just like people. They watch others, try ideas out, and eventually learn how to do things. Prof. Alex Kacelnik led this study some years ago and continues to work in this field now.
Levels of awareness
He says that the nature of consciousness is tricky to understand, and suggests that there might be different degrees of it, as various species demonstrate levels of awareness about what’s going on around them.
When we talk about consciousness, it can be useful to split it into ‘primary’ consciousness: seeing, hearing and feeling pain, and ‘secondary’ consciousness, which covers things like self-awareness, reflection and abstract thinking. Lots of animals exhibit evidence of primary consciousness, such as fear: anyone who’s owned a dog on fireworks night can probably attest to that.
Finding examples of secondary consciousness is much more difficult. One of the first steps in the search is to look for self-recognition: many members of the great ape family (to which we also belong) as well as dolphins, elephants, and some species of birds, including magpies, can demonstrate an ability to recognise their own reflection in mirrors, suggesting they have some capacity for self-awareness.
Certain behaviours can also be telling, especially if they suggest that the animal has to think about what it is doing, rather than just follow instinctual behaviour. Californian scrub jays have a habit of hiding their food. But if they catch another jay watching them, they’ll wait for the nosy observer to leave, then move it elsewhere. Are they trying to mislead their spectator?
Elephants are best known for their amazing memories, but they also show complex social behaviour that may indicate consciousness. They are one of the only non-human species known to exhibit ritual around death, and there is some anecdotal evidence that they mourn their lost herd members.
Whatever form consciousness takes in other animals, it probably lies on a spectrum. This leads to lots of other fascinating questions. Prof. Kacelnik gives the example of an ethical dilemma…if you were presented with the choice of killing one human and 20 humans, you may choose the “least-bad” option. But what if you were presented with the choice of killing one human or 20 animals?
“It’s an ethical problem, and it is for people to speculate on their own decisions,” he says. “For example, if you were to conclude that it depends what the animal is, how about a mosquito? Do you have the right to kill it or not?”
Research on animals
The next question Prof. Kacelnik raises is to do with the use of antibiotics. As we know, it’s a really helpful medicine but it’s used to kill living organisms. Plus its success has depended upon previous research on animals in a lab setting.
“You are choosing between killing millions of bacteria for one human by taking antibiotics,” he explains. “Lots of us would consider that to be right, we take antibiotics all the time, but it can become difficult if you need to kill or harm a chimpanzee to use a vaccine that could actually save a large number of human beings. If we haven’t done research in other species, we wouldn’t have vaccines, and millions and millions of children would be dying of polio, tuberculosis and many other diseases. And so if you consider that taking an antibiotic is justified, then how about doing medical research at a cost of the lives of other species?”
“You are choosing between killing millions of bacteria for one human being by taking antibiotics...”
Prof. Kacelnik explains that animals are used in medical research to understand how cells change during illness and how they respond to treatment.
“Animal research has already produced a huge proportion of the medicine that we are benefiting from today, and animal research today will produce a huge proportion of the benefits that future generations are going to experience as science makes progress,” says Kacelnik.
But he admits that not everyone would agree with him. Some people might say it wouldn’t be ethical to save a human being at the expense of another animal. They might also say that it isn’t right to use animals in research, or eat animals, or have pets. Prof. Kacelnik says that these people wouldn’t agree with “any other thing that establishes a moral distinction between human beings and other species”.
Does this mean that it’s possible to think that other animals are just as important as humans? Prof. Kacelnik says “it depends”.
“The question is for who?” he asks. “Obviously for a monkey, humans are less important than monkeys, and vice versa. So presumably this question leads to another closely related one: as humans, should we care more for humans than for other animals? My personal answer would be that yes, I care more about humans than I care about other animals. That doesn’t mean that I don’t care about other species, but basically, I work within a framework in which humans are more important to me.”
When it comes to these questions, Prof. Kacelnik thinks people need to make up their own minds, using their own principles plus scientific fact. “I think it would be wrong to expect scientists to give the final answer to this, but I do think that scientific ideas should inform the way we think about the problem,” he says.
So over to you…what do you think?
Do animals have legal rights?
Dr Kevin Grecksch (Law Faculty, University of Oxford) explores whether animals have legal rights, whether humans should protect them and if it's possible for an animal to commit a crime.
Weird and wonderful celebrity pets
Mike Tyson’s feathered friends
Did you know that the former world heavyweight boxing champion is a big fan of pigeons?! Apparently, the birds give Tyson a sense of peace, and he’s always been fascinated with them. In fact, Tyson claims that they’re the reason he started his fighting career in the first place. A childhood bully killed one of his birds in front of him, and the hurt and anger he felt at the death of the innocent creature fuelled his desire to train as a boxer.
Leonardo DiCaprio’s Sulcata sidekick
DiCaprio reportedly ‘shelled out’ (get it?!) £400 for his pet tortoise, who will live around 100 years! Owning a tortoise is a huge commitment, and the breed that DiCaprio owns is not exactly a small addition to the family either. As a Sulcata Tortoise, it can grow to weigh a mighty 200 pounds, or 14 stone!
Nicolas Cage’s 8-armed acquaintance
Nicolas Cage is famous for having spent a lot of money on many extravagant things, such as 15 houses, a deserted island, the very first superman comic, and a real dinosaur skull! He is also a fan of unusual pets, owning two king cobras and more famously, a $150,000 unusual octopus, which allegedly helped him with his acting!
Miley Cyrus’ piggy pals
The singer loves animals, and has a huge number of pets, from cute and furry dogs and cats to the slightly more strange! She absolutely adores her pet pigs, and has shared photographs on Instagram with one of her pigs, Bubba Sue, painting her trotters bright red! Cyrus even announced that she wasn’t going to go on tour with her album Younger Now, because she wanted to devote more time to looking after her curly-tailed companions.
Salvador Dalí’s feline fun
The surrealist artist, Dalí’ had a somewhat unusual taste in pets and in the 1960’s he surprised everyone by purchasing a Colombian ocelot called Babou. Ocelots used to be endangered as people hunted them for their fur. They have coats resembling a clouded leopard or jaguar, and round ears, big front paws and long tails. Apparently, Dalí’ used to take Babou everywhere with him, keeping him close to him on a lead and stone-studded collar. Once, the pair shocked diners at a Manhattan restaurant, until Dalí’ reassuringly said that actually Babou was just a regular cat that he’d “painted over in an op art design.”
Audrey Hepburn’s adorable deer
In the 1959 film Green Mansions, Hollywood actress Audrey Hepburn was required to act alongside a baby deer. And so in preparation, the director thought it would be a good idea for the pair to bond outside of work to strengthen their on-screen trust. They got on so well that the deer thought Audrey was its mother, and followed her everywhere. The pair even took naps together, and did the grocery shopping together in Beverly Hills!
How the relationship between humans and animals changed
Throughout human history, the lives of people and animals have been tightly intertwined. From their use as food to the benefits of their companionship, it's difficult to ignore how much animals have benefited us throughout our evolution - even if the way we interact with them has changed dramatically.
Once upon a time in the Ice Age
While it may be tempting to imagine early man living in complete harmony with nature, this was probably far from reality. Towards the end of the Pleistocene (the Ice Age), Earth was home to an incredible suite of enormous animals, known as megafauna, from car-sized armadillos, called Glyptodon, to the charismatic woolly mammoth. But, perhaps unluckily, these huge creatures shared the planet with the recently evolved, meat-hungry Homo sapiens (modern humans).
The switch to an animal-based diet was an important stage in human evolution that allowed us to evolve our characteristically large brains. However, big brains need a lot of sustenance – and an abundance of several-ton beasts was sure to be tempting. During the Quaternary period, nearly all Pleistocene megafauna went extinct – and many believe that hunting had something to do with it.
Our role in the demise of these animals is hotly debated. Many hypotheses have been pushed for these extinctions, including climate change, disease and even swarms of comets. But it is suspect that each major migration of early humans was accompanied by a large extinction: our arrival in Australia 50,000 years ago coincided with the disappearance of Diprotodon, the largest known marsupial ever to have lived; while 40,000 years later, the colonisation of the Americas was closely followed by several megafauna extinctions: including that of Glyptodon.
Interestingly, African loss was much less than elsewhere because humans evolved alongside African megafauna. Outside of Africa and southern Eurasia the loss is much more closely linked to the expansion of humans
Ultimately, the real cause was likely a mixture of factors. But it’s hard to deny that we probably played a part.
Man's best friends
As human evolution progressed, our relationship with nature wasn’t only destructive. We’ve made friends along the way. Roughly 36,000 years ago, while humans still lived as hunter-gatherers, wolves began to associate with people, setting the scene for the first animal domestication.
While no one is quite sure how dog domestication actually occurred, it is clear that it led to a powerful partnership: the combination of clever human hunters and their ferocious canine companions would have been a force to contend with. And the successful pairing has persisted ever since, leading to a vast diversity of dog breeds that help us fulfil very different goals: from the sledge-pulling malamute to the Chihuahua – first bred as a living hot water bottle!
In hunter societies, dogs were the only animals we needed to work with. However, the onset of agriculture, around 11,500 years ago, led to the domestication of a whole new suite of animals.
Even before livestock existed, the early ancestors of the pet cat were beginning to enter the scene. The earliest known feline-human association goes back 9500 years when a wildcat was buried with a person in Cyprus. However, DNA evidence suggests cats lived alongside humans for much longer than this.
Early agricultural settlements would have been a haven for rodents, attracted to farming waste. This surplus of potential prey would have drawn cats to human settlements and would benefit people by eradicating the pests. As well as being useful rat-assassins, many societies, particularly the ancient Greeks and Egyptians, found cats to be pleasant company. And so the domestic cat was born.
Around this time, humans also began to domesticate animals for food.
Sheep were likely the first livestock, appearing on the scene around 11,000 years ago. As well as meat and milk, these hardy animals would have been highly valued for their hides. Clothes made from sheepskin are believed to have allowed people to move and settle in very cold areas – expanding our migration significantly.
Horses had an important role to play, too. Originally kept for food, their domestication for riding, believed to have occurred around 3500 BCE (Before Common Era) by the Botai settlements of Kazakhstan, had a huge impact on human movement. Historians believe that shift to using horses as transport may have driven the first major migrations into Western Europe.
Lending a hand (or a hoof)
As industrialisation took hold in the late 18th century, automated machinery took over and animals became less important to agriculture. At this point, service animals and pets became much more popular.
The first use of animals in this way dates back at least 2000 years when pigeons were used to deliver post in early Persia. Even guide dogs date back to the 16th century! However, it is only in the last century that the use of service animals has really taken off.
One of the most successful examples of this has been the use of dogs in law enforcement. These programs originated in Belgium in 1899, where dogs were trained to track and attack criminals. Nowadays, police dogs have an enormous variety of roles: they may locate or subdue suspects; conduct search and rescue operations; detect explosives or illicit substances, or sniff out traces of arson attacks!
Many other animals are now trained to work with us; helping people, especially those with disabilities, to go about their day-to-day lives. They may alert them of impending seizures, fetch belongings or even perform basic chores.
And just being around animals can be beneficial too. While still a new field, animal-assisted therapy can improve people’s social and emotional well-being. For example, the Riding for the Disabled Association has achieved huge success working with people across the UK to provide therapy, enjoyment and a sense of achievement through horse riding. Older people, who may suffer from loneliness, may benefit from animal companionship. Even students are reaping the benefit – many universities in the UK now host petting zoos for their stressed finalists, including several of our colleges here in Oxford!
Throughout human history, animals have been enormously valuable, be it as an important source of food, by enabling our migration to otherwise uninhabitable parts of the globe, or by helping us maintain healthy and enriched lives. While our attitudes towards them may be constantly evolving, there is no doubt that they are every bit as important to us as they were 40,000 years ago.
Are humans more important than other animals?
A duty to protect?
Animals help us in lots of different ways. We use them therapeutically as companions but they can also help tackle crime and even perform rescue operations. Dr Kevin Grecksch (University of Oxford) explains that because animals do not communicate with language in the same way that we do, we can’t really understand the depths of their innermost thoughts and feelings. Not only do humans have more legal rights than other animals, but they also have the power to make important decisions which have the potential to change their habitats and beyond. And so some argue that we have a duty to protect them from others who may want to harm them. And this is especially important since many species are so crucial to our lives.
We’d be without food.
Without animals, our food sources would be extremely limited. Aside from the way humans have used animals for meat since the ice age, even the small creatures that we might take for granted, like flies, ants and bees are hugely important. They play a key role in the overall food chain. Therefore, we should look after them because they look after us by contributing to our sources of food. Take ants, for example, we may not be a huge fan of these critters, but ants are incredibly helpful to us! They aid with soil decomposition, recycling nutrients and adding air to the soil when they burrow tunnels. Without these processes, the crops that we grow for food would not be as healthy, and in making our soil healthier, this reduces the amount of chemicals farmers need to fertilise the land.
Humans have the power to domesticate.
While no one is quite sure how dog domestication actually occurred, it’s clear that it led to a powerful partnership. The combination of clever human hunters and their ferocious canine companions would have been a force to contend with. And the successful pairing has persisted ever since, leading to a vast diversity of dog breeds that help us fulfil very different goals: from the sledge-pulling malamute to the Chihuahua - first bred as a living hot water bottle! In hunter societies, dogs were the only animals we needed to work with. However, the onset of agriculture, around 11,500 years ago led to the domestication of a whole new suite of animals. Some might think that humans are more important than other animals because we have the intelligence to use animals to help us meet our aims in our everyday lives.
Humans and animals are the same.
Some animals show similar complex social behaviour to humans. For example, Californian scrub jays have a habit of hiding their food, but if they catch another jay watching them, they’ll wait for the nosy observer to leave, then move it elsewhere. Elephants are best known for their amazing memories, but they also show complex social behaviour that may indicate consciousness. They are one of the only non-human species known to exhibit ritual around death, and there is some anecdotal evidence that they mourn their lost herd members. So if other animals display complex behaviours like humans shouldn’t they be treated the same as us?
Are humans | more important than | other animals?Vote now